Quebec is a predominately French-speaking province in eastern Canada with 2 vibrant cities in its south. The metropolis of Montreal is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill at its heart. Dating to 1608, Quebec City retains its old colonial core. Place Royale, and historic harbour, Vieux Port are now known for nightlife.
Quebec founded: October 7, 1763
Capital: Quebec City
Colleges and Universities: Laval University (and more)
Canada's largest province, 'Quebec' came from the Algonquin word 'Kepek'
meaning “the place where the river narrows,”
(referring to the St. Lawrence River at Quebec City)
Ethnic Groups of People include French, Irish, Italian, English, Aboriginal, Scottish, German.
Languages: French 80%, English 7.8%, Italian 1.7%, Spanish 1.5%, Arabic 1.5% (2006 census).
Aboriginal People,total over 108,430: Mohawk, Wendat (Huron), Cree, Algonquin, Innu (Montagnais), Micmac, Attikameks, Inuit and Metis (2006 census).
People came from France, Britain, southern Europe, East and southeast Asia.
The largest city is Montreal (metropolitan population over 3.7 million).
Most cities and towns are along the St. Lawrence River.
The first people are the Aboriginals ~ in the southern part, growing squash, beans and maize; some were hunters and gatherers who lived in birchbark covered wigwams; the northern people hunted seals, whales and polar bears.
Explorer, Jacques Cartier arrived in 1534 and claimed the land for France.
Samuel de Champlain set up a colony called...New France in 1608.
Farmers called, habitants settled there. (Wonder why the Montreal Canadiens were called 'Habs'?)
British and French fought the Seven Years' War...
ending when Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759.
Loyalists arrived from the U.S. (1781) and settled further up the river.
The area was divided into Upper Canada (English-speaking) & Lower Canada (French-speaking) 1791.
The Act of Union in 1840 united Upper and Lower Canada and established the Province of Canada.
In 1867, the Province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec.
Quebec became one of the four original provinces of the Dominion of Canada, along with Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in 1867.
Water and Land
The land is divided into 3 regions ~ Canadian Shield, St. Lawrence Lowlands and Appalachian Region.
About 90% of Quebec is in the Canadian Shield...being rocky with forests, lakes and rivers.
Most people live in the St. Lawrence Lowlands...and agricultural region.
The St. Lawrence River (over 1200 km long) links Quebec to the Atlantic Ocean.
The Appalachian Region (south-eastern part of the province) consists of weathered mountains.
Quebec has more fresh water than any other province.
There are more than one million lakes and thousands of waterways.
Resources and Industry
Gold, copper, iron ore, silver, zinc, nickel and asbestos are mined in Quebec.
Hydroelectric power is produced and exported to the U.S.
One of the largest hydroelectric plants in the world is near James Bay.
Quebec produces more than a third of Canada's pulp and paper products.
Lumber is used to make furniture and build homes.
The province is Canada's main producer of maple syrup.
The dairy industry is the largest in Canada.
Raising hogs, cattle and poultry...and growing hay, corn and oats to feed the animals are significant.
All kinds of fruit and vegetables are grown in southern Quebec.
Manufacturing: aerospace industries, aircraft and commuter trains, computer and electronic products and pharmaceuticals.
Events: The Winter Carnival is held in Quebec City in February. Activities include winter sports, dances, ice sculptures and dog sled races, parades and concerts. 'Bonhomme' is the snowman mascot.
The Laurentian Mountains, north of Montreal, invite travellers to visit and vacation in its scenically-scenic paradise. I spent a few ski-weeks in late December and January ~ most exhilarating days including Gray Rocks and Mont Tremblant. Although brief visits in Quebec City, I never skied Mont Sainte-Anne nor any resorts in the Eastern Township near the Vermont border.
Places: Bonaventure Island Bird Sanctuary ~ largest colony of gannets in the world.
Quebec City ~ the only walled city north of Mexico in North America, has many historic buildings.
Old Montreal ~ features cobblestone streets and has architecture from the 17th and 18th century.
Religious Shrines ~ Saint Joseph's Oratory in Montreal and Ste-Anne-de-Beaupre Basilica attract millions of pilgrims yearly.
Significant People: Celine Dion, Oscar Peterson, William Shatner, J.A. Bombardier, Myriam Bedard, Gaelon Boucher, Marc Gagnon, Gilles & Jacques Villeneuve, Marc Garneau and Julie Payette.
Canadian Prime Ministers from Quebec: Jean Chretien, Brian Mulroney, Pierre Trudeau, Louis St. Laurent, Sir Wilfred Laurier and Sir John Abbot.
Famous NHL Hockey Players from Quebec: Henri and Maurice Rocket Richard, Jean Beliveau, Guy LaFleur, Patrick Roy, Bernie Boom Boom Geoffrion, Mario Lemieux.
Flower: Fleur de lis (Blue Flag Iris)...Tree: Yellow Birch (for making furniture)...Insect: White Admiral Butterfly...Nickname: La Belle Province (Beautiful)...Motto: Je me souviens (I remember).
Flag: has a white cross on a blue background;
the four white fleur de lis represent the early settlers.
It became the official flag in 1948.
Merle Baird-Kerr...written July 7, 2015
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